d2kg: An Integrated Ontology for Knowledge Graph-based Representation of Government Decisions and Acts

Tracking #: 3535-4749

Konstantinos Serderidis
Ioannis Konstantinidis
Nick Bassiliades
Georgios Meditskos
Vassilios Peristeras

Responsible editor: 
Cogan Shimizu

Submission type: 
Ontology Description
To implement Open Governance a crucial element is the efficient use of the big amounts of open data produced in the public domain. Public administration is a rich source of data and potentially new knowledge. It is a data intensive sector producing vast amounts of information encoded in government decisions and acts, published nowadays on the World Wide Web. The knowledge shared on the Web is mostly made available via semi-structured documents written in natural language.To exploit this knowledge, technologies such as Natural Language Processing, Information Extraction, Data mining and the SemanticWeb could be used, embedding into documents explicit semantics based on formal knowledge representations such as ontologies. Knowledge representation can be made possible by the deployment of Knowledge Graphs, collections of interlinked representations of entities, events or concepts, based on underlying ontologies. This paper presents a new ontology d2kg [d(iavgeia) 2(to) k(nowledge) g(raph)] integrating in a unique way standard EU ontologies, core and controlled vocabularies to enable exploitation of publicly available data from government decisions and acts published on the Greek platform Diavgeia with the aim to facilitate data sharing, re-usability and interoperability. It demonstrates a characteristic example of a Knowledge Graph based representation of government decisions and acts, highlighting its added value to respond to real practical use cases for the promotion of transparency, accountability and public awareness. The developed d2kg ontology in owl is accessible at: http://w3id.org/d2kg, as well as documented at: http://w3id.org/d2kg/documentation.
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Solicited Reviews:
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Review #1
By Harshvardhan J. Pandit submitted on 24/Sep/2023
Review Comment:

I am satisfied with the changes made to the article and resource and recommend it be accepted subject to other reviewers agreeing their issues have been addressed - in particular, a sufficient clarification regarding the design of the imported ontologies and the reuse potential which Review #2 highlights.

Review #2
By Eva Blomqvist submitted on 27/Nov/2023
Minor Revision
Review Comment:

In terms of the paper itself, all the main comments have indeed been addressed, and it is more clear now how existing ontologies have been used/reused. In addition the added value is discussed in a separate section.

However, my doubts regarding the ontology itself remains. It is huge. It is monolithic. Honestly, I do not see how anyone will be able to understand it, even less reuse it. As some minimal improvement, I would strongly suggest that at least the online documentation is improved. I understand that a tool is used to generate it automatically from the file, but that approach may simply not work well for such large ontologies. For instance, when a domain or range restriction is so long that it takes several pages, it really becomes impossible to even scroll through the lists of classes and properties in a reasonable manner. My suggestion would be to modify the script generating the documentation, to maybe avoid including everything (e.g. using pop-ups of expandable panels in the documentation page), or highlighting some parts while leaving other things to be found in the ontology file itself.