Interpretable Ontology Extension in Chemistry

Tracking #: 3183-4397

This paper is currently under review
Martin Glauer
Adel Memariani
Fabian Neuhaus
Till Mossakowski
Janna Hastings1

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Guest Editors Ontologies in XAI

Submission type: 
Full Paper
Reference ontologies provide a shared vocabulary and knowledge resource for their domain. Manual construction and annotation enables them to maintain high quality, allowing them to be widely accepted across their community. However, the manual ontology development process does not scale for large domains. We present a new methodology for automatic ontology extension for domains in which the ontology classes have associated graph-structured annotations, and apply it to the ChEBI ontology, a prominent reference ontology for life sciences chemistry. We train Transformer-based deep learning models on the leaf node structures from the ChEBI ontology and the classes to which they belong. The models are then able to automatically classify previously unseen chemical structures, resulting in automated ontology extension. The proposed models achieved an overall F1 scores of 0.80 and above, improvements of at least 6 percentage points over our previous results on the same dataset. In addition, the models are interpretable: we illustrate that visualizing the model's attention weights can help to explain the results by providing insight into how the model made its decisions. We also analyse the performance for molecules that have not been part of the ontology and evaluate the logical correctness of the resulting extension.
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