Cultural Heritage Information Retrieval: Data Modelling and Applications

Tracking #: 3167-4381

This paper is currently under review
Babak Ranjgar
Abolghasem Sadeghi-Niaraki
Maryam Shakeri1
Soo-Mi Choi
Fatema Rahimi

Responsible editor: 
Mehwish Alam

Submission type: 
Survey Article
Knowledge organization and development of better information retrieval techniques were of great importance from a very early time period in human history. The need has grown high for such systems with the advent of digitization and the web era. Com-puter systems and web have offered easier retrieval of information in almost no time. However, as the amount of data increased, these systems were not able to work well in terms of accuracy and precision of retrieval. Semantic Web concept was introduced to overcome the issue by converting the web of documents to a web of data. Semantic Web technologies makes data machine-understandable so that information retrieval can be more precise and accurate. The Cultural Heritage community is one of the first domains to adopt Semantic Web recommendations and technologies, which can provide interoperability between various organi-zations by creating a shared understanding in the community. The data in the CH domain differs widely with types and formats. Also, a lot of organizations and experts from various fields interact through different processes within this community. Due to the mentioned needs, the CH community employed Semantic Web technologies step by step along its evolution process for better knowledge management and a uniform understanding among the community. In this paper, we presented this process from its initial steps and the various challenges faced to the latest developments in the CH information retrieval. The CH domain has the goal of preserving and dissemination of the historical information to people and society. Therefore, by making data machine-readable and achieving data interoperability thus a better information retrieval, there is a wide set of opportunities to develop smart applications based on rich CH information as a form of interactive, user-friendly, and context-aware dissemination of information to users. In this paper, we also reviewed intelligent applications and services developed in the CH domain after establishing se-mantic data models and Knowledge Organization Systems. Finally, challenges and possible future research directions are dis-cussed. The findings revealed that GLAMs (Galleries, Libraries, Archives, and Museums) are excellent and comprehensive sources of CH information. The CH community has put in a lot of time and effort to develop data models and knowledge organization tools; now it's time to use this valuable resource to construct smart applications that are still in their early phases. This could benefit the CH industry even more.
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